US researchers discover new HIV strain for the first time in 20 years
Dated; November 7th 2019.
Alles Europa news reports that according to researchers the HIV detected strain may be “a serious problem for diagnostic tests.” But, according to Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, there is no reason for concern: existing HIV treatment methods will work in the case of the new strain.
“This discovery reminds us that in order to end the HIV epidemic, we must continue to research this ever-changing virus and use the latest advances in technology and resources to monitor its development,” said Carol MacArthur, professor at the U.S University of Missouri.
Alles Europa news reports that this new HIV subtype was discovered for the first time since 2000. How exactly it affects the body is not yet known, but scientists note that already existing drugs for treating HIV will work against the new strain.
Alles Europa news reports that Virologists from the University of Missouri together with the medical company Abbott Laboratories discovered a new strain of HIV. The results of the study are published in the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Journal.
Alles Europa news reports that HIV has several subtypes or strains; in addition, they can change and mutate over time. Scientists have revealed that the new strain is part of the HIV-1 virus group M (subtype L).
As noted by Abbott Laboratories, it is this HIV group that is widespread throughout the world. This is the first new strain of group M since 2000, when scientists managed to establish the principles of classification of subtypes.
To prove the existence of a new subtype, the researchers needed to find three cases of the disease that were not related to each other. The first two scientists discovered in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1983 and 1990. A third was found there in 2001 as part of a study on preventing mother-to-child transmission of the virus.
Alles Europa news reports that HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.
Alles Europa news reports that HIV infection leads to low levels of CD4+ T cells through a number of mechanisms, including pyroptosis of abortively infected T cells, apoptosis of uninfected bystander cells, direct viral killing of infected cells, and killing of infected CD4+ T cells by CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes that recognize infected cells.
When CD4+ T cell numbers decline below a critical level, cell-mediated immunity is lost, and the body becomes progressively more susceptible to opportunistic infections, leading to the development of AIDS.
Alles Europa news reports that In most cases, HIV is a sexually transmitted infection and occurs by contact with or transfer of blood, pre-ejaculate, semen, and vaginal fluids.
Research has shown (for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples) that HIV is untransmissable through condomless sexual intercourse if the HIV-positive partner has a consistently undetectable viral load.
Non-sexual transmission can occur from an infected mother to her infant during pregnancy, during childbirth by exposure to her blood or vaginal fluid, and through breast milk.
Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells.
Alles Europa news reports the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) as two species of Lentivirus – a subgroup of retrovirus that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Alles Europa news reports that AIDS on the advance sides as a condition in humans in which progressive failure of the immune system allows life-threatening opportunistic infections and cancers to thrive. Without treatment, average survival time after infection with HIV is estimated to be 9 to 11 years, depending on the HIV subtype.