Symptoms of coronavirus and when to call for help and the criticism by Dr. Anthony Fauci.

Symptoms will tell that a person has already had coronavirus

Symptoms will tell that a person has already had coronavirus

A sudden stabbing pain in the abdomen will also indicate a possible development of the disease.

In Wuhan, more than 100 people had diarrhea before being diagnosed.

Another sign of a serious infection is conjunctivitis, which manifests itself in the form of burning in the eyes, itching, redness and suppuration.

If fatigue is an unusual condition for you, then you should pay attention to it.

(Alles Europa News)- Scientists from Oxford are convinced that in fact, a lot more people are ill with the new virus than is commonly believed.
According to them, the spread of coronavirus occurred even before the epidemic in China.

Doctors identified five symptoms that indicate that a person has had COVID-19 without knowing it. These include diarrhea, loss of smell, abdominal pain, conjunctivitis and fatigue.

Researchers

Researchers are sure that one of the main symptoms of coronavirus is the loss of smell – without knowing it, people can infect others.

Researchers also found that bats-infecting coronavirus is able to recognize the same human receptor as SARS-CoV-2, but does not attach well to it. It was the mutations in the spike-forming protein that allowed the virus to develop into SARS-CoV-2, which is dangerous for humans. Lee’s previous work showed that SARS at one time appeared due to one specific mutation that gave him the opportunity to infect the human body. The transition of SARS-CoV-2 from mice to humans obviously required several mutations.

“Our work can be used to create monoclonal antibodies that will recognize and neutralize parts of protein spikes that bind to receptors,” says Lee. – Or, part of the spike may become the basis of the vaccine.

In general, this study may be useful in developing strategies to fight the virus based on how it binds to receptors. “

In addition, researchers studied two coronaviruses derived from pangolins. One of them, as it turned out, is also able to bind to human receptors, which could make pangolins intermediate carriers of the virus. It may also affect the emergence of new coronaviruses in the future.

Another group of researchers previously received coronaviruses from pangolins . Pangolin coronaviruses had 85-92% genomic similarity with SARS-CoV-2. However, they did not have specific changes characteristic of this strain.

In addition, the bat-striking coronavirus RaTG13 is more similar to SARS-CoV-2 than the pangolin viruses.

The authors of the work, however, did not try to prove that it was the pangolins that became the source of SARS-CoV-2 in humans – rather, they seek to warn of the risk of infection from them in the future.

“The discovery of several strains of coronavirus in pangolins and their similarity with SARS-CoV-2 suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts when new coronaviruses appear and should not go on sale to avoid transmission of infection,” they noted.

Peter Daszak, president of the EcoHealth Alliance, an organization that deals with the transmission of infections between animals and humans, emphasized that although the pangolin trade is fairly common, dried parts are sold in most cases, making it almost impossible to get infected.

Scientists admit that the virus could mutate without an intermediate carrier, hitting a person directly from mice. In addition, the market in Wuhan was not necessarily the source of the outbreak – in the southern part of China there are many livestock farms that grow chickens, civet, porcupines, and bamboo rats – all under conditions conducive to the spread of the virus, Dasak explains.

Mice could infect any animals, those – employees and visitors to the farm, and they, having visited the market, spread the infection.

It is also not yet determined when the virus became so easily transmitted from person to person. Perhaps this ability appeared even before he got from animals to people. But it could develop even after it had circulated for some time among people.

Exposure to coronavirus protein spikes may hinder its spread, American scientists hope. They studied the structure of the spikes, found out how the virus attaches to human cells with their help, and put forward a suggestion on how to prevent it from doing so.

A team of scientists from the University of Minnesota studied the structure of the new coronavirus and found its weak spot. New data can be used to create antiviral drugs, the authors calculate. The study was published in the journal Nature .

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is closely linked to the SARS virus, which caused the SARS epidemic in 2002-2003. A team led by Professor Fan Li figured out how mutations that changed the protein structure of SARS-CoV-2 allowed him to more reliably attach to human cells than his predecessor.

“In general, having studied what structural features of viral proteins are most important for establishing contact with human cells, we can develop drugs that find them and block their activity,”

  • says Lee.

When infected, a protein spike on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virion attaches to a receptor protein on the surface of human cells – in particular, lung cells. Researchers compare this to hitting a key in a keyhole.

Studying the features of SARS-CoV-2 spikes and human cell receptors using x-rays, Lee and his colleagues first discovered that just a few mutations made the molecular “crest” of the spike more compact than the similar structure in the atypical pneumonia pathogen. These and other changes have helped SARS-CoV-2 to attach to receptors more reliably, to infect human cells more efficiently and to spread faster.

Buruibu was criticized by Dr. Anthony Fauci

Buruibu was criticized by Dr. Anthony Fauci , director of the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

“This report bothers me because it is misleading,” he says.

According to Fauci, for pathogens to scatter eight meters, you need extremely intense sneezing. At a White House briefing, he even showed how to sneeze in order to spread the virus so far.

“You need to lean back, lean forward abruptly, and – apchi!” He commented on his actions. – If you do so, then you can sneeze and eight meters. But it’s not practical. ”

However, it’s still worth observing a distance of several meters. In addition, as another group of researchers recently warned , viral particles can enter ventilation systems and travel fairly long distances, causing one of the outbreaks of coronavirus infection in Singapore.

For this reason, scientists recommend refraining from flying on airplanes during a pandemic – even if an infected person sits at the other end of the cabin, virions can get into the air conditioning system of the aircraft and infect people who are far from it.

A sneezing person spreads droplets of secretions up to eight meters, the researcher from the USA calculated – therefore, the safe distance between people during a coronavirus pandemic needs to be increased. However, not all experts agree with her.

Until recently, the answer to the question of how far the droplets of secretions spread when sneezing could qualify for the Shnobel Prize. However, in the context of the coronavirus pandemic, this information is, as it turns out, vital.

When sneezing, microdrops of secretions containing coronavirus can spread over a distance of more than eight meters, says Lidia Buruiba, associate professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

She explains that sneezing forms a turbulent cloud that can contain dangerous virions. The work was published in the journal Journal of the American Medical Association .

The COVID-19 pandemic has forced many governments to close schools, shops and other public places, to prohibit crossing cities and, if possible, not to leave home.

In the case of going outside, it is recommended to keep a distance from other people of at least 1.5-2 m – it is precisely at such a distance that it is believed that viral particles can move when sneezing or coughing.

However, according to the researcher, this distance is greatly underestimated, which limits the effectiveness of the proposed measures to combat the coronavirus pandemic.

“Recent data show that when exhaling, sneezing and coughing, not only drops of mucous secretions that follow short semi-ballistic trajectories are ejected, but, importantly, a multiphase turbulent gas cloud forms, which scatters a lot of drops of different sizes in the surrounding air,” she says .

Large droplets settle faster than they evaporate, polluting the surfaces around the infected person. Small ones, on the contrary, evaporate quickly enough, forming residual particles, which play an important role in the spread of respiratory diseases. Strategies to fight infections are based on which droplets play a major role in their distribution, Buruiba explains – large or small.

As a proof of her words, the researcher cites a video on which the spread of droplets of secretions from a person when sneezing is demonstrated.

According to her, the range of movement of both large and small droplets of precipitates expands due to the fact that they interact with turbulent air flows. In addition, a warm and humid atmosphere is maintained in the turbulent cloud, which extends the lifetime of the droplets until they evaporate.

“Due to the progressive movement of the cloud of droplets, particles of pathogenic microorganisms move much further than if they were ejected alone without a turbulent cloud that captures and carries them forward,” said Buruiba. – Given the various physiological characteristics of individual patients and environmental conditions, such as humidity and temperature,

pathogens can be carried up to a distance of 7-8 m. “

Drops of discharge move at a speed of up to 30 m / s. Some of them settle on the surfaces, while the rest continue to move forward, she says. As a result, even when the cloud loses its initial momentum, and the discharge evaporates, the virus particles themselves can remain in the air for several hours and be carried by air currents, including falling into ventilation systems.

a weak spot of the coronavirus

The authors of the work, however, did not try to prove that it was the pangolins that became the source of SARS-CoV-2 in humans – rather, they seek to warn of the risk of infection from them in the future.

“The discovery of several strains of coronavirus in pangolins and their similarity with SARS-CoV-2 suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts when new coronaviruses appear and should not go on sale to avoid transmission of infection,” they noted.

Peter Daszak, president of the EcoHealth Alliance, an organization that deals with the transmission of infections between animals and humans, emphasized that although the pangolin trade is fairly common, dried parts are sold in most cases, making it almost impossible to get infected.

Scientists admit that the virus could mutate without an intermediate carrier, hitting a person directly from mice. In addition, the market in Wuhan was not necessarily the source of the outbreak – in the southern part of China there are many livestock farms that grow chickens, civet, porcupines, and bamboo rats – all under conditions conducive to the spread of the virus, Dasak explains.

Mice could infect any animals, those – employees and visitors to the farm, and they, having visited the market, spread the infection.

It is also not yet determined when the virus became so easily transmitted from person to person. Perhaps this ability appeared even before he got from animals to people. But it could develop even after it had circulated for some time among people.

Exposure to coronavirus protein spikes may hinder its spread, American scientists hope. They studied the structure of the spikes, found out how the virus attaches to human cells with their help, and put forward a suggestion on how to prevent it from doing so.

A team of scientists from the University of Minnesota studied the structure of the new coronavirus and found its weak spot. New data can be used to create antiviral drugs, the authors calculate. The study was published in the journal Nature .

The SARS-CoV-2 virus is closely linked to the SARS virus, which caused the SARS epidemic in 2002-2003. A team led by Professor Fan Li figured out how mutations that changed the protein structure of SARS-CoV-2 allowed him to more reliably attach to human cells than his predecessor.

“In general, having studied what structural features of viral proteins are most important for establishing contact with human cells, we can develop drugs that find them and block their activity,”

  • says Lee.

When infected, a protein spike on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virion attaches to a receptor protein on the surface of human cells – in particular, lung cells. Researchers compare this to hitting a key in a keyhole.

Studying the features of SARS-CoV-2 spikes and human cell receptors using x-rays, Lee and his colleagues first discovered that just a few mutations made the molecular “crest” of the spike more compact than the similar structure in the atypical pneumonia pathogen. These and other changes have helped SARS-CoV-2 to attach to receptors more reliably, to infect human cells more efficiently and to spread faster.

Researchers also found that bats-infecting coronavirus is able to recognize the same human receptor as SARS-CoV-2, but does not attach well to it. It was the mutations in the spike-forming protein that allowed the virus to develop into SARS-CoV-2, which is dangerous for humans. Lee’s previous work showed that SARS at one time appeared due to one specific mutation that gave him the opportunity to infect the human body. The transition of SARS-CoV-2 from mice to humans obviously required several mutations.

“Our work can be used to create monoclonal antibodies that will recognize and neutralize parts of protein spikes that bind to receptors,” says Lee. – Or, part of the spike may become the basis of the vaccine.

In general, this study may be useful in developing strategies to fight the virus based on how it binds to receptors. “

In addition, researchers studied two coronaviruses derived from pangolins. One of them, as it turned out, is also able to bind to human receptors, which could make pangolins intermediate carriers of the virus. It may also affect the emergence of new coronaviruses in the future.

Another group of researchers previously received coronaviruses from pangolins . Pangolin coronaviruses had 85-92% genomic similarity with SARS-CoV-2. However, they did not have specific changes characteristic of this strain.

In addition, the bat-striking coronavirus RaTG13 is more similar to SARS-CoV-2 than the pangolin viruses.

Psychologists and quarantine

Psychologists talked about the impact of quarantine on the psyche

Joshua Morganstein, a psychiatrist and disaster mental health professional at the U.S. Military Medical University.

There is little research into the psychological effects of social exclusion during epidemics. But a meta-analysis published in March 2020 in the magazine Lancet allows us to draw certain conclusions.

The authors reviewed 24 studies that examined the impact on the psyche of people with quarantine during SARS, H1N1 flu outbreak, Ebola and other infectious diseases in the 21st century.

Most quarantined people experienced both short-term and long-term mental health problems, including stress, insomnia, emotional exhaustion, and substance abuse.

So, out of 2760 people who were quarantined during the outbreak of equine flu, 938 (34%) experienced increased anxiety and depressive symptoms. Among people who were not in quarantine, there were only 12% of them.

Another study examined the effects of an outbreak of SARS in 2003 for 549 workers in a Beijing hospital.

Those who were in quarantine or who worked under conditions of increased risk (almost half of the sample) even after three years reported an increased level of alcohol consumption compared to the rest.

Certain factors increased the risk of developing disorders –

in particular, quarantine lasting more than 10 days (this was mainly due to the development of post-traumatic stress), poor awareness of the causes of quarantine, lack of access to necessary resources and telecommunication services.

Working with these risk factors can reduce the likelihood of mental health problems, says co-author of the meta-analysis, Neil Greenberg, a psychiatrist at King’s College London.

“Although isolation can be unpleasant,” he says, “you need to make sure that it does not cause serious mental disorders.”

Most people, of course, are not quarantined. But, according to the researchers, even less severe forms of social isolation, for example, the need to maintain a distance of several meters from other people or a long stay at home, can lead to unpleasant consequences.

Problems arise when the terms of social exclusion exceed several weeks, explains the psychiatrist Damir Huremovich. When people are separated from each other for months, the secondary consequences of the pandemic begin to appear – the economic crisis, social unrest, unemployment. All this leads to a widespread psychological problems in society.

“I sincerely hope that this will not come to this,” he notes.

Older people are most at risk. Many of them lose their ability to move and communicate with age, and the circle of their loved ones narrows as friends and family members die.

According to the American National Academy of Sciences, nearly a quarter of Americans aged 65 and over have few social connections and rarely make contact with other people. And 43% of people over 60 feel lonely.

“There is a great social distance between us,” recalls psychologist Julianne Holt-Lanstad.

In 2015, she and her colleagues conducted a meta-analysis of 70 studies involving more than 3.4 million people.

They were observed on average for about seven years. During this time, the likelihood of death of those who felt alone grew by 26%, those who had few social contacts – by 29%, and those who lived alone – by 32%.

Some people will endure a period of social isolation better than others. Collaborative isolation can strengthen families, and you can keep in touch with friends through phone calls, text messages, or joining online communities.

“We live in an age of unprecedented opportunity for communication,” Huremovich points out.

And these opportunities need to be used to provide medical and psychological assistance remotely, he notes. Some studies show that telemedicine services can alleviate loneliness and be useful to those who live alone or far from medical facilities.

Canadian gerontologist Verena Menek, however, doubts that remote medical support can replace personal contacts.

“In the long run, this is unlikely to be enough,” she said.

In addition, no matter how perfect modern technologies are, they do not allow you to hug, hold hands, massage or otherwise touch your loved ones – and such manifestations of sympathy, as shown by studies, have a positive effect on health, contribute to lowering blood pressure and even improve well-being with a cold .

Neuroscientist James Coan is especially worried about people in need of medical care – affected by both COVID-19 and other diseases. In many hospitals, visits are prohibited.

This helps to contain the virus, but at the same time reduces the number of tactile contacts, Coan explains. But, as his studies show , hugs and other types of touches help people survive physical pain, unpleasant sensations seem to them less intense.

Even the touch of a hospital employee in a protective suit is better than nothing, he explains. The scientist believes that such points should be taken into account in treatment protocols.

Quarantine and social exclusion can lead to depression, alcoholism, and anxiety disorders, psychologists warn. Although this is the most effective measure to control the coronavirus pandemic, it is important to maintain social contact through at least calls and correspondence to maintain mental health.

Increasingly stringent measures are often used to slow the spread of coronavirus, often involving isolation of the majority of the population. Psychologists warn : the loss of habitual social connections is fraught with problems, and the longer isolation lasts, the worse the consequences.

China’s experience has shown that isolation is the most effective way to contain a pandemic.

A growing number of states are urging residents to stay at home, transferring their education and work to a remote format, schools, restaurants, shopping centers are closed, and visitors are not allowed into nursing homes and hospitals. All these measures are designed to prevent the virus from spreading freely.

“For some people, the lack of social connections is the same as the lack of food,”

Chinese scientist told how to deal with the coronavirus pandemic

Only on January 20, Chinese scientists officially announced the presence of clear evidence of transmission of the virus from person to person. Why do you think it was so hard for epidemiologists in China to discover that this was happening?

  • Detailed epidemiological data have not yet been. And from the very beginning we were faced with a very strange, disguised virus. The same can be said about Italy, and about other countries of Europe, and about the USA. From the very beginning everyone thought: “Well, this is just a virus.”
  • The spread of the virus in China has decreased significantly, and new confirmed cases are mainly people entering the country, right?
  • Yes. At the moment, we do not have transmission of the virus among the local population, the main problem is imported cases.

Many infected people arrive in China.

“But what will happen when life in China returns to normal?” Do you think that enough people have become infected so that collective immunity protects against the virus?

  • We definitely do not have collective immunity yet. But we look forward to more accurate antibody test results that can tell us how many people have actually become infected.

“And what is the strategy now?” Take time to find effective medicines?

  • Yes, our scientists are working both on vaccines and on medicines.
  • Many scientists consider remdesivir the most promising medicine that is currently being tested. What do you think, when will the data on clinical trials of the drug in China be received?
  • In April.
  • Do Chinese scientists have animal models that, in your opinion, are reliable enough to study the pathogenesis and testing of drugs and vaccines?

“We are currently using monkeys and transgenic mice that have ACE2, the human virus receptor.” Mice are widely used in China to evaluate the effectiveness of drugs and vaccines, and there are at least a couple of articles about studies on monkeys that will be released shortly. I can say that research on monkeys is effective.

  • What do you think about the fact that US President Donald Trump calls the new coronavirus the “Chinese virus”?

“It is definitely not good to call it the Chinese virus.” The virus belongs to the Earth. The virus is our common enemy, not an individual or a country.

Coronavirus epidemic can be suppressed by isolating all patients, and wearing masks on people without symptoms, says leading Chinese scientist George Gao, one of the first to receive the SARS-CoV-2 genome. He is concerned that in other countries quarantine is not sufficiently enforced.

George Gao, director general of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention in China, told Science magazine what mistakes other countries have made in the fight against the COVID-19 epidemic and why one should wear a mask even if there are no symptoms of the disease.

In January 2020, Gao joined the team that isolated the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus and sequenced its gene. He also co-authored articles providing the first detailed epidemiological data.

In addition, his team provided important information to an international commission organized by WHO , which, after traveling to China, produced a report to help understand what measures should be taken in connection with the epidemic.

For two months, correspondents could not contact him – Gao was overloaded with work, and communication with journalists was not part of his plans.

In the end, he agreed to an interview. I had to send questions over the course of several days either by mail, or by telephone, or by voice messages.

  • What can other countries teach China’s approach to COVID-19?
  • Maintaining social distance is the most important strategy to combat any infectious disease, especially if it is a respiratory infection. Firstly, we used non-pharmaceutical strategies because there are no specific drugs for COVID-19, there are no vaccines. Secondly, you need to be sure that we isolate all infected. Thirdly, those with whom patients are in close contact should also be quarantined: we spend a lot of time trying to track close contacts and make sure that these people are isolated. Fourth, it is necessary to suspend public meetings. Fifth, we need to limit movement, so we close the borders.
  • Wuhan has been closed since January 23, then – neighboring cities in Hubei Province. In other provinces, there were fewer restrictions. How was all this coordinated and how important was the oversight of the measures taken in different areas?

“It needs understanding, consensus.” This requires very strong leadership, both locally and nationally. We need a leader and coordinator who works in close contact with the public. Individuals who monitor compliance should know who is in close contact, who might be infected. They must be very vigilant. They play a key role.

  • What mistakes do other countries make?
  • The biggest mistake in Europe and the USA, in my opinion, is that people don’t wear masks.

This virus is transmitted by airborne droplets and through close contact. Drops play a very important role – you need to wear a mask, because when you talk, tiny drops fly out of your mouth. In many people, the infection is asymptomatic or may be in the incubation period. If they wear masks, this can prevent the spread of droplets with virions and infect other people.

“What about other control measures?” China actively uses thermometers, for example, at the entrances to shops, buildings and at public transport stops.

  • Yes. Wherever you go in China, you will come across thermometers. You should try to measure the temperature of people as often as possible to make sure that people with high temperature are isolated.

An important unresolved question is how stable this virus is in the environment. Since it is an enveloped virus, people think that it is vulnerable and especially sensitive to surface temperature or humidity. But, judging by the results of American and Chinese studies, it is quite tenacious on some surfaces. It can survive in many environments. We need science-based answers.

  • In Wuhan, people whose test for coronavirus was positive, but the symptoms were mild, still ended up in hospital detention centers, they were not allowed to see families. Should this be done in other countries?
  • Infected people need to be isolated.

This must be done everywhere. COVID-19 can only be contained if it is possible to get rid of the sources of infection. That’s why we built modular hospitals and converted stadiums to hospitals.

  • There are many questions about the source of the outbreak in China. Chinese researchers reported that the earliest case of infection occurred on December 1, 2019. What do you think of the report in the South China Morning Post, which says that the data of the Chinese government show that there were cases in November 2019, and the first occurred on November 17?
  • There is no strong evidence that we already had cases of infection in November. We are trying to understand where the virus came from.
  • Wuhan representatives of the health care system associated a large number of cases of infection with the seafood market and closed it on January 1. It was assumed that the virus came to people from a sold and, possibly, butchered animal in the market. But in one of your works, which included a retrospective search for cases, you said that four of the first five infected people had no connection with the seafood market. Do you think that the seafood market was a likely place of origin, or did it serve as a place for the spread of the virus, but not the source?
  • This is a very good question. You work as a detective. From the very beginning, everyone thought that the virus came to people from the market. Now I believe that it could be both the place of origin of the virus, and simply contribute to its spread. So this is a scientific question. There are two options.
  • China was also criticized for not sharing the sequenced genome of the virus right away. The story of the new coronavirus appeared in The Wall Street Journal on January 8, and its source was not Chinese scientists. Why not?
  • It was a very good job from journalists. China informed WHO of the data received, and I think the time between the appearance of the article and the official dissemination of this data was probably several hours. Not more than a day.

“But the publicly available database of viral sequences later showed that the first of them was submitted by Chinese researchers on January 5th.” So at least three days have passed. Now this will not change the course of the epidemic, but, frankly, some questions remain.

  • I do not think so. We quickly shared information with fellow scientists, but this was about public health, and we had to wait until politicians announced this publicly. You don’t want the public to panic? And no one in any country could predict that the virus would cause a pandemic. This is the first pandemic of something besides the flu.

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Continues Reading below………

intimate lubricant

Do not use as an intimate lubricant

According to a Professor from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Sally Bloomfield. – Store antiseptics also contain emollients, without which you risk damaging your skin. It’s difficult to make such a mixture at home, so it’s better not to experiment. ”

Bloomfield also recalls that you should not touch surfaces without need, and if you had to do this, you must use an antiseptic or wash your hands before touching your face.

Experts warn against feverish buying up of antiseptics – a small bottle lasts for a long time, and their too frequent use dries the skin, which increases vulnerability to various infections. Therefore, disinfectants should be used only if there is no way to wash your hands.

It’s completely impossible to completely stop touching the surrounding surfaces, says Bloomfield. Therefore, hand hygiene is essential.

“When everyone is hygienic, you are doing everything you can to prevent getting infected,” she says. “If you are infected, you do not spread the infection.”

Dr. Erim Chaudry raises a piquant question about disinfectants –

he strictly does not recommend using them for intimate hygiene, and even less as a lubricant.

“Yes, the inguinal region is a warm place with high perspiration, but the skin there is very sensitive,” he says. “Isopropyl alcohol is unsafe for internal use, and its use in masturbation can lead to mucosal damage.”

Meanwhile, some have already learned about this from personal experience. So, one of the users of the Reddit website said that after using an antiseptic as a lubricant, he ended up in the hospital and he would have to go in the diaper for a week.

Doctors called not to prepare antiseptics to protect against coronavirus at home and not to use alcohol gels as an intimate lubricant. At the same time, experts noted that alcohol-based disinfectants are less effective than regular hand washing.

To reduce the risk of contracting coronavirus and other infections, WHO recommends washing your hands with soap and water as often as possible – this reduces the number of germs on your hands. When washing hands in public places, it is better to use paper towels rather than dryers, an international group of researchers in 2012 found that towels get rid of moisture much faster, and dryers with an air stream can also spread bacteria and viruses.

But if this method of purification is not available, alcohol-based disinfectants can be used, experts at the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention note . They should contain at least 60% alcohol.

Hand antiseptics appeared in 1966 thanks to the young nurse Lupe Hernandez from California. After the swine flu epidemic in 2009, they became widespread not only in hospitals, but also among ordinary people. In the United States, in 2009, sales of disinfectant gels and wipes increased by 70% in six months. Today, antiseptic vials can be bought anywhere from airports to beauty shops.

Alcohol-based hand sanitizers contain ethanol, isopropyl alcohol or n-propanol.

Alcohol-free are based on quaternary ammonium compounds. They can reduce the number of germs, but are less effective than alcohol. Alcohol antiseptics are effective against many bacteria, as well as the influenza virus, rhinovirus, hepatitis A and even HIV.

Ethanol destroys the protein coat that many viruses have, including coronavirus. It is necessary for the virions to live and reproduce.

The effectiveness of antiseptics decreases if the hands are greasy or very dirty – for example, after eating or working in the garden. In such cases, it is still recommended that you find a way to wash your hands with soap. In addition, antiseptics are useless against pesticides and heavy metals.

Means with an alcohol concentration of less than 60% are better not to use.

Firstly, they have different efficacy against different microbes. Secondly, they do not kill germs, but only slow their growth.

The antiseptic should be applied to the palm of your hand and rubbed into the surface of the hands, including at the nails and between the fingers, until completely dry. If a child uses the drug, make sure that he does not swallow it – antiseptics often have a pleasant smell, and children can try to drink it.

In the media you can find recipes for the independent manufacture of antiseptics from aloe vera gel, 70% isopropyl alcohol and tea tree oil. It is proposed to mix equal parts of the gel and alcohol, add 2-3 oils and shake the composition for about a minute.

Isopropyl alcohol can also be used to wipe the keyboard and phones.

Home-made antiseptics may be less effective than pharmacy, but still provide some protection. However, in case of sneezing or coughing up in your palm, it is better to wash your hands – they get mucus that protects the germs and prevents alcohol from reaching them.

However, not all experts agree that home-made antiseptics are generally worth using.

“This is unreasonable and dangerous,

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